Tuesday, 2 December 2008

Is Hydrogen better for the Environment?

It has been suggested that hydrogen is better for the environment but not necessarily better for fuel economy. That is because the majority of hydrogen is produced directly from hydrocarbons and has serious consequences - just as we currently have now by burning hydrocarbons (oil derivatives) directly in our vehicles.
A home made hydrolysis system can be constructed cheaply that produces a small quantity of hydrogen/oxygen from water and the resulting gasses passed directly into the intake air manifold of your car which is said to improve your fuel economy, but research suggests the engine may run hotter and timing issues will cause knocking.

Should we change over to an hydrogen economy?

Yes as should the whole world over, but with the reservation that storage of hydrogen is not the answer, actually it is futile and dangerous to even consider it see here:

Apart from some on-site hydrogen generation/insitu, the hydrogen economy is best directed and steered towards self sufficiency. In other words it will be a do-it-yourself proposal but unfortunately until we all switch over from hydrocarbons the oil companies will do everything in their power to prevent it which will ultimately lead to higher and higher oil prices for those few remaining willing or having to buy it from them.

Sunday, 5 October 2008

Nano-titanite batteries - The Electric Car power solution

Nanosafe batteries (made by Altairnano) replaced the graphite in the anode electrode with nano-titanate.
This change gives them vastly better numbers. We're talking batteries that can be charged in less than 10 minutes, have a power density of 4,000 W/Kg, and can retain 85% of their charge after 15,000 - 20,000 charge cycles. Combine this with a wider operating temperature range (between -50 to 75 degrees C) than standard li-ion batteries, expected life of 12-20 years (depending on use) and batteries that have not smoked or caught fire in any of the standard battery tests, and you've got a battery with great potential for automotive use.

They claim instantaneous power even at extreme temperatures, can deliver power per unit weight and unit volume several times that of conventional Lithium-Ion batteries.

They powered the world record beating EV dragster driven by Dennis Berube in Tucson Arizona on December 30th 2007, during which he achieved a top speed of over 160mph in under 8 seconds.

The UK Lightning car company http://www.lightningcarcompany.co.uk uses this technology.
There are no gearboxes, differential, axle, drive shafts or propshafts to contend with. All of the power is generated at the wheel, the point at which it's required, which eliminates mechanical complexity and power losses. It also uses regenerative braking which doesn't create friction and useless heat in order to slow down. Instead it reverses its electric motor turning it into an electric generator, creating electricity which is fed back into the battery pack.

Wednesday, 1 October 2008

Need more Ejaculate?

More ejaculate:

Search terms: "lack of seminal fluid", testosterone booster, Nitric Oxide NO),

helps your body produce more semen, and release more Nitric Oxide (NO) for dilation of arteries for erection.

helps your sex organ tissues trap more water and increase the ejaculation fluid and dilate the arteries for erection.

Generally Speaking, the ejaculation contains three secretion fluids:
sperm (10%) from the ductus deferens and epididymis,
seminal fluid (60%) from semenial vesicles and;
prostate fluid (30%) from the prostate.

The seminal fluid is yellowish and viscous.
The prostate fluid is milky.
Your first ejaculation, your semen is yellowish, as it is supposed to be.
The 2nd ejaculation is lightly milky, because of a lack of seminal fluid, the Prostate fluid outweighing the seminal fluid.

Nitric Oxide – what is it?

Nitric oxide is a colourless, free radical gas commonly found in tissues of all mammals (it’s also prepared commercially by passing air through an electric arc). Biologically, nitric oxide has been shown to be an important neuro-messenger in a number of vertebrate signal transduction processes. Nitric oxide is used in medical treatment; for example, nitroglycerin ameliorates the pain of angina by supplying nitric oxide to the blood vessels that supply the heart.

Glycerol can also be used as a bodybuilding supplement to increase nitric oxide (NO) uptake in the muscles and act in a similar way to the amino acid arginine to create swelling in the working muscle for the individual

The popular drug Viagra controls erection by regulating nitric oxide in the penile cartilage chamber.

In humans, a high-salt intake has long been known to generally raise blood pressure, especially in certain individuals. However, it was demonstrated to attenuate nitric oxide production. Nitric oxide (NO) contributes to vessel homeostasis by inhibiting vascular smooth muscle contraction and growth, platelet aggregation, and leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium.

(Use in Bodybuilding:)
is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), increasing production of gonadotropins by inhibiting negative feedback on the hypothalamus. It is used mainly for ovarian stimulation in female infertility due to anovulation (e.g. due to polycystic ovary syndrome).

Clomifene is commonly used by male anabolic steroid users to bind the estrogen receptors in their bodies, thereby blocking the effects of estrogen, such as gynecomastia. It also restores the body's natural production of testosterone.
It is commonly used as a "recovery drug" and taken toward the end of a steroid cycle. Some users report that taking Clomid increases the amount of fluid produced during ejaculation.

Thursday, 25 September 2008

Are Electric Cars Possible?

Electric cars are the solution but for two major problems as far as I can

1. Energy Production

2. Energy Storage

1. Energy production (generating electricity) is imminent as I have determined using a unique generating method which DOES NOT involve hydrocarbons (fossil fuels) or nuclear fuels. Neither does it involve wind, solar, geothermal or any other cited renewables.
If your thinking bio-fuels, you would be wrong.

I am developing a system of renewable energy using hydrogen but not as a combustible, rather the system is closed-loop without exhaust (not even water) and without huge energy input.
It is not electrolysis either -just so you have something else to eliminate, but I cannot disclose it without compromising the project so you will have to wait for the announcement (imminent)

2. On-board storage is a major obstacle if we are to get acceptable mileages out of our cars.
The system I'm working on would allow you to independently generate all the electricity
you require at home for much less than any other current single fuel cost/energy provider.
Not only would it allow you to power your home (TV, Microwave, Lighting etc.) but it is a dual purpose co-generating system providing both heat and electricity for around 0.003p per kWh.

Plug in your car to the wall outlet (AC) using an inverter to DC to recharge your batteries. Battery technology/fuel cells are not yet at the storage capacity or sizes/weights where you can make your journey practical, but at least my results show I have solved the first problem - Energy production.

PS. This is the point where I get loads of negative comments?
Until I show a repeatable demonstration with numbers to back up the
project... it is only to be expected.

Tuesday, 23 September 2008

Impermeable Membrane Design Considerations

Suggestions for materials used for the design of a membrane/separator without using noble metals or catalyst.
A hydrogen and oxygen gas impermeable membrane spaced between the cathode plate and anode plate.

This membrane would be used for electrolysis of water.

Factors to be considered in designing the separator

The considerations that are important may influence the selection of the separator include the following:

# Electronic insulator
# Minimal electrolyte (ionic) resistance
# Mechanical and dimensional stability
# Sufficient physical strength to allow easy handling
# Chemical resistance to degradation by electrolyte, impurities, and electrode reactants and products
# Effective in preventing migration of particles or colloidal or soluble species between the two electrodes
# Readily wetted by electrolyte
# Permeable/impermeable to gas molecules or selective based on molecular size
# Uniformity in thickness
# Flexibility or rigidity
# Porosity
# weight

Separator types:

# microporous films
# woven
# nonwovens
# ion exchange membranes
# supported liquid membranes
# solid polymer electrolytes
# solid ion conductors
# bonded/laminates
# solid and gelled electrolyte/separator combined

My research has led me to believe that Nonwovens are widely utilized as separators for several types of batteries (NiCd’s) which are not dissimilar, comparable with a water electrolysis cell using a Potassium Hydroxide (KOH) or Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) electrolyte solution.
For example lightweight, wet laid nonwovens made from cellulose, poly(vinyl alcohol), and other fibers have achieved considerable success as separators for popular primary alkaline cells of various sizes.
The key nonwoven attributes include consistently uniform basis weight, thickness, porosity and resistance to degradation by electrolytes.

I plan to make use of some high quality fabric Nonwoven roofing sheet (pin-holed) impregnated with PVA to allow ionic transfer but which should also be impermeable to Oxygen.

Any thoughts?

Thursday, 21 August 2008

Fuel Cell design with breathable - conductive membrane without Platinum catalyst

Cell casting under vacuum with glass sheets producing less than 0.5 micron thick graphite coating onto modified PTFE substrate is comparable to that of fuel cells using a Platinum catalyst.

Tests have shown that by using the membrane at elevated ambient temperatures of 170oC and a voltage range of 120-200 VDC pulsed (quenched), acts as both electrode and catalyst and is comparable to similar tests undertaken with Platinum and other noble metals at lower temperatures.

This new doped material allows O2 exchanges from water vapour (steam) but is totally impervious to water droplets in the process.

The new fuel cell design allowed ionic exchanges through the membrane for 24 hours continuous with water as the fuel source.

Further tests are required to increase and collect oxygen from water using pure nickel electrodes in a simultaneous process wherein a potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte has shown to produce pure oxygen at the cathode thereby providing a higher volume of hydrogen in the presence of the new membrane at the anode. The reverse is also true as with the graphite coated membrane/electrode above, which also produces clean oxygen at the anode without reversing polarity.

Wednesday, 20 August 2008

Hydrogen storage is not the answer to a hydrogen economy

Storing gaseous or liquid hydrogen in containers is difficult, dangerous and futile.

The hydrogen economy is far from realisation due to some scientists and engineers insisting upon overcoming these technical problems.
Unfortunately hydrogen storage has no place in the hydrogen economy we are seeking but for a few on-site facilities where it is both produced and used directly or, converted to electricity at source and distributed through the national grid.
The answer lies not with storage but on-site and insitu production.

Read more >

Tuesday, 19 August 2008

What is a fuel cell?

A fuel cell is an electrochemical energy conversion device that takes stored chemical energy and converts it into electrical energy directly.

In the presence of an electrolyte (which also acts as the reactant separator) and electrodes (which act as the catalyst), a fuel cell produces electricity from fuels such as hydrogen and oxygen. The current is collected externally at the bipolar plates.

A battery has all its chemicals stored inside it, and it too converts those chemicals into electricity but unlike a fuel cell, batteries eventually "go dead" through depletion and have to be either discarded or recharged.

With a fuel cell however, chemicals constantly flow into the cell so it never goes dead. A continuous replenishment of fuel into the cell, provides near continuous electrical production. Most fuel cells in use today use hydrogen and oxygen as the chemicals and as such, the conversion of fuel into electricity via the electrochemical process is considered clean, quiet and highly efficient typically two to three times more efficient than combustion.

In addition to low, zero or near zero emissions, other benefits include high efficiency and reliability, multi-fuel capability, scalability and ease of maintenance. Fuel cells operate quietly, so they reduce noise pollution as well as air pollution and the waste heat from a fuel cell can be used to provide hot water or space heating for a home or office.

Many combinations of fuel and oxidant are possible. A hydrogen cell uses hydrogen as fuel and oxygen as oxidant. Other fuels include hydrocarbons and alcohols. Other oxidants include air, chlorine and chlorine dioxide etc.

Sunday, 10 August 2008

The Hydrogen economy - By Default

How many times does something have to be rediscovered?

This is a real life experience for many individuals, industry and other organisations within their respected academic and experimental capacities to pursue technology and a costly one.

It is far less apparent in industry with huge teams of researchers and managers with seemingly large resources than it is for the individual or small group, but the problem of rediscovery exists at all levels.

Technology perpetually feeds itself in a particular area but cannot encourage growth or provide potential to other areas which may be applicable without publication or demonstration (sharing). This is true in both specialised areas of scientific research and basic research at all levels.

Hydrogen and our understanding of it as a propulsion technology - as in the case of rocket fuels, and our fear of it as an explosion (as in the Hindenburg explosion) caused the scientific community and others to abandon it as a viable fuel primarily for safety reasons but partly because of other emerging "safe" technologies at the time with the emerging alternatives as hydrocarbons, ethanol/oxygen and because it was less technologically taxing.

Abandonment of hydrogen has been historically a recurring problem. Many theorists and researchers had considered using hydrogen as a fuel but had failed in the pioneering days to produce it in significant quantities, contain it without acceptable evaporative losses/leeching and later to safely exploit its use as a fuel significantly, especially in an ideal mix ratio: H2/O2 (2:1). The widespread fear of hydrogen in modern society, probably originates with the well known disaster of the Hindenburg dirigible and reinforced by the H-bomb. Proponents of hydrogen however thankfully overcame that prejudice (hydrogen-fuelled rockets are now a reality). Other technologies are undoubtedly ignored today simply because of the same bias against certain materials or processes. Supposedly in part through ignorance and preconceptions through histories prior abandonment, but also with a certain unwillingness to overcome those technological barriers through fear of failure. This fear of history repeating itself might account for the lack of sharing of information and consideration of postulation by others. Engineers and scientists, just like the rest of us remain conditioned; we need to be reminded occasionally to take a fresh look and approach old attitudes and familiar procedures without fear of ridicule or scepticism.

The author hereby empathises with the often conflicting roles of the individual researcher or experimenter, who originates ideas and concepts and that of the group or organisation which manages/oversees today's complex hydrogen technology. Many worthwhile ideas have undoubtedly been lost, at least temporarily, because individuals were unable to convince managers and academia without specific articulation, language or expression. Consensus is achieved within groups by appointed engineers and scientists often with one or more individuals pulling rank or seniority. When agreement seems impossible in such a situation, an individual is occasionally bold and arguably wise enough, to forego his preferred solution, so that a project may continue unhindered. In this regard, timing is critical. If the individual does not argue his ideas effectively or hard enough, he is seen as indecisive and unconvincing; but if he forcefully and frustratingly makes his case he is obstinate.

The decision to use liquid hydrogen/Oxygen in the upper stages of the Saturn launch vehicles cites many accounts of individual/group interactions from which any individual and decision maker alike can profit.

It is true that a hydrogen economy is far from becoming a reality - short term, and I concur with those who state that we cannot employ the same methods used to propel rockets in our cars. But until we start collaborative efforts at all levels, and by ignoring our fears and readdressing at least some old technologies even to affirm or substantiate claims will we ever see it happen.

Authors note:
I have purposely made reference here to "old technologies" as a precursor to the consideration of using particular "forgotten technologies" which through experimentation with the old and the newly emerging technologies, will publish in due course. However to substantiate my findings it will be necessary to provide constructive argument to current and emerging technologies with emphasis on certain known limitations without being outright dismissive. The old technologies with which I propose are to be merged with the new as these will be proven and substantiated as; viable and complimentary.

I welcome your comments.

Tuesday, 10 June 2008


When trying to market an expensive product it just might be worth considering spending your time selling them the cheaper option instead!

Let me explain…

Buying is an emotional affair which plays an important role in any purchasing decision, even if only subconsciously.

People are naturally sceptical at first but are also willing to be wooed and coaxed into making the decision to buy, and that’s the traditional job of the marketeer.

Part of tapping into all that resourceful emotion is for us to explain to the customer the highlights and potential benefits of owning such an item. Depending on the type of product we might also need to provide detailed technical information before they part with their cash along with some educational stuff illustrating what the product is, can and/or cannot do. But for the most part, emphasizing the benefits and playing down the limitations is the game; and a gentle nudge is sometimes all that may be required to close the deal. As always, each sale is followed up by the obligatory complimentary bullshit; “congratulations on your making a good buying decision” etc. This little pat on the back, however gives them the feeling of well being & gratification, a little self appraisal that we all want as human beings. Some of these values still hold true but for the more expensive (or overpriced products) I have a slightly different approach in which I surreptitiously encourage them to spend even more money but blatantly insult them too!

Don’t just treat the customer like an idiot – insult them too!

Treating customers with kid gloves is just too much like hard work, and besides a charm- offensive is not the natural way to talk to people. Sure you can be charming and courteous and we all like a bit of flirtatious fun, but most people are used to such sales bullshit and you will only reinforce their feelings of scepticism anyway. If you’re trying to sell something then just cut to the chase - you’re just wasting everyone’s time and your desperation will be all too evident if you don’t. A more natural approach and a little bit of emotional blackmail will work every time!

Let’s exploit the buying decision briefly…

People are naturally willing to buy so why waste their time with bullshit when all you really need to do is spend time to explain and educate them as to the products potential benefits. The only difference in wanting the product and actually owning it is “the money” needed to buy it, and provided they actually have the necessary funds (or can get it) it should be a simple process. Selling something cheap is easy, especially without comparison to existing or similar products or competition (unique). Selling something of a higher perceived value in the face of competition however can be a little tricky.

Here are a few more emotions we can exploit. We can later use these emotions to insult our customers and get them to spend more!

  1. Greed
  2. Jealousy
  3. Curiosity and;
  4. Embarrassment

Human beings are instinctively greedy creatures, we all want the best for ourselves and our families and we all want more and more. It’s like a competition amongst us, always striving to outdo others wherever possible. We’re also envious of each other and embarrassed if we cannot or don’t have what other people have (keeping up with the Jones’s syndrome). Combining these emotions we can exploit anyone with their natural desire to want expensive things and makes for an easier sale.

What if the product is too expensive or overpriced?

If the product is beyond their reach then apart from offering finance there’s not much you can do about it except offering a cheaper alternative if one exists. If it is a matter of choice between buying the cheaper branded item then that’s what they will do but if more funds are available, then you should try to simply but subtly embarrass the client into suggesting perhaps they cannot afford the expensive option! A brief but passing comment here and there or reference to the expensive option is all you need to do... just enough information to make them aware of its existence with the occasional dismissiveness and to pitch the lesser item instead.

Human nature; greed, want, desire, jealousy, curiosity and fear of embarrassment will work in your favour, they will override your presumptuous attitude to provide them with a cheaper deal, (how dare you!) while the more expensive and profitable option (and all its benefits) is what you really want them to do anyway!

An idiot can do this

Insulting the customer this way won’t win you any friends but it will generate a higher turnover and make a big difference to your bottom line. Just try pitching the customer on the products limitations and see what happens! If they are aware you can provide them with a better alternative and they can afford it, which do you think they will buy?

A customer will always try to resist temptation to buy expensive from a salesperson because they have a natural inbuilt or learned distrust. But because you’re an idiot and you “inadvertently” treat them like one too - by pitching the lower end product... they can only assume and regard you as having inferior motives to sell effectively.

So you’re not really a proper salesperson after all are you?

Pitching the lower end product gives them the perceived upper hand (intellectually speaking) and their own distrust of you as a salesperson quickly wanes.

Your ineffectiveness to sell by pitching a lower priced product to someone who can obviously afford the better alternative convinces them that you’re not very good at your job. Either that or they think you’re not very good at reading people by statements such as:
“…but this is the more affordable alternative for you” or
“Because it’s more expensive let me show you this instead”

The other thing to notice here is that if you’re convincing enough they will actually question you and your motives for trying to sell a low valued item. Just be dismissive - try to look flummoxed, take on their embarrassment for your mistake, maybe apologize for your ineptness and be as passive as you can. People who have the means (the money) will insist on wanting the best, always wanting the unobtainable, dismissing your roll and talk themselves into buying the more expensive product for themselves – who needs you as a salesperson?

The whole process is made easier because nobody likes to be pitched-to but if you think about it, you’re not really spending your time pitching the product you’re actually selling. Instead you’re surreptitiously spending time pitching the lesser product while at the same time downplaying the more expensive (profitable) product. Your communication with the customer is therefore easier and more natural, less pushy and ultimately more convincing.

The only downside to which I call my “surreptitious marketing” technique however is for me to keep my poker face. It’s sometimes difficult especially in a face-to-face situation to keep eye contact with that bewildered look on their faces!

In a future article I will write about using “surreptitious marketing” to help you sell affiliate products online using ClickBank

Sunday, 8 June 2008

Website Privacy and Security Policy

Thank you for visiting and reviewing our privacy policy. Our privacy policy is clear: We will collect no personal information about you when you visit our website unless you choose to provide that information to us.
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Internet Security Policy

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1. The Internet domain (for example, "acompany.com" if you use a private Internet access account, or "yourisp.co.uk" if you connect to the web through your Internet Service Provider "ISP") and IP address (an IP address is a number that is automatically assigned to your computer whenever you are surfing the Web) from which you access our website;
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Wednesday, 4 June 2008

A Technological Demon

One hell of a learning curve for such a novice!

Not too long ago back in the days of Windows '95/'98, the UK retail store Dixon's announced the arrival of it's flagship product "Freeserve" with dial-up connections at just 0.01 pence per minute, I somehow still managed to run up bills in excess of £80.00 per month!

It would seem an impossible thing to do what I did back then some 10 years ago, running up those sorts of phone bills, but this just proves how hungry I was for the knowledge of the technological marvel of what we now know as the internet (aka) the world-wide-web. Obviously other ISP's existed but "Freeserve" became the mainstream internet gateway for many Europeans.

In my hunger for such knowledge I quickly found myself spending more and more time online, not that I was misspending that time for inappropriate downloads (not all the time anyway), but it seemed that any little piece of knowledge just fueled my urge and led me to investigate and learn even more. I was preoccupied "hooked" into the technologies and faced with learning all that I could just for the sake of it. Unfortunately in those first couple of years I realized I was still left with more questions than answers. But as time went on I progressively became more "expert" however; and technological advances appeared to slow down compared with what I had learned and my ability to learn existing stuff from new. I soon caught up to speed in what was available in terms of computers and existing internet technologies. I even enrolled with the OU (Open University) and studied towards a degree: "Information Technology & Computing".

My problem was and always has been to involve myself fanatically and become entirely engrossed into what ever it is I do. This is still true of myself today, and in the last decade I have turned somewhat into the proverbial geek!

The old fashioned way
Building my first "hobby" generic computer with it's then massive 6.4GB HDD and, website: http://www.mouldmaking.freeserve.co.uk (long winded url) was an enjoyable but very steep learning curve for me. Not only did I learn basic html initially through newsgroups such as alt.html and using Microsoft Frontpage (Yuk), and then Dreamweaver wysiwyg editor. I also needed to learn FTP, CGi, Perl, javascript etc. this was on top of having to learn the intricacies of the FreeBSD (Unix operating system derivative), '95/'98 operating systems (more Yuk), and build my own PC to boot!
I was also promoting my website and learning SEO techniques (Search Engine Optimization) which took up most of my remaining time.
Actually my website did quite well and although competition was quite thin those first few years, I did hold No.1 position worldwide on Google for most of my keywords for 10 years straight. BTW Freeserve was sold out to a french company Wanadoo in 2000 for £1.65bn ($2.37bn) and that was that. Following a rebranding exercise in June 2006, Freeserve and Wanadoo UK now form part of the UK operation of Orange, and are known as Orange Home UK plc.

SEO was understood implicitly but the tedious link exchanges between webmasters were a real nightmare!
Then came the guest books and FFA link farms. These were seen as an easy option to "link back to yourself" (back-links) without fear of rejection provided you furbished them with "I think your site was great", and "I really enjoyed my visit" kind of bullshit to the respective site owners!
Unfortunately for many however; Search engines took a poor view of such spamming techniques and many sites simply disappeared into the murky depths of search results.

Happier times ahead - The modern way...
These days things have changed for the better I'm happy to say, and although spamming is still frowned on by the search engines, a new kind of link building is revolutionary to the SEO arsenal. Far be it for me to sell you on the idea of social bookmarking but with carefully timed posting to these sites, exposure can work their magic for the website owner and those concerned with SEO and back-links.

Read more about Social Bookmarking

Social Bookmarking Tool:
Automated "Spam- free" Search Engine Optimization tool through Social bookmarks"

Social Bookmarking

Social Bookmarking as a SEO Tactic!

A new kind of link building tactic is revolutionary to the SEO arsenal. Far be it for me to sell you on the idea of social bookmarking but with carefully timed posting to these sites, exposure can work their magic for the website owner and those concerned with SEO in creating back-links.

If you are a responsible site owner intent on creating back-links for legitimate purposes then you can use software to "Automatically register and submit metatags" (keywords) to hundreds of Social bookmarking sites including CAPTCHA protected sites.

Automatic submission tool:
Automated "Spam free" Search Engine Optimisation tool using Social bookmarks

Social bookmarking is a great method for Internet users to permanently store, organize, search, and manage bookmarks of interest found on the Internet with the help of metadata (metatags).

In a social bookmarking system, users save links to web pages online in a personalized manner usually for free. Such bookmarks are usually public (social), but can be saved privately, shared only with specified people or groups, shared only inside certain networks, or other combinations of public and private domains - Sorted chronologically, by category or tags, or via a search engine.

Most social bookmark services encourage users to organize their bookmarks with informal tags instead of the traditional browser-based systems.
They also enable viewing bookmarks associated with tags, and include numeric information about the number of other users who have bookmarked them. Some social bookmarking services also enable Drag-and-dropping (Ajax) relationships of tags to create clusters of (grouped) tags or bookmarks.

Many social bookmarking services also have web feed capabilities for new lists of bookmarks. This allows subscribers to become aware of new bookmarks as they are saved, shared, and tagged by other users.

As these services have become more popular, new extra features have emerged such as ratings and comments on bookmarks, the ability to import and export bookmarks from your own browser, emailing bookmarks, web annotation, and other social networking features.

With the launch of itList in April 1996, the concept of shared online bookmarks was born who's features included publicly shared and private bookmarks. Within the preceding three years, other online bookmark services had arrived with venture-backing such as Backflip, Blink, Clip2, ClickMarks, HotLinks, and others entering the market. They provided folders for organizing bookmarks, with some automatically sorting bookmarks into virtual folders. Blink included browser buttons for saving bookmarks; Backflip enabled users to email their bookmarks and displayed "Backflip this page" buttons.

Lacking any viable business model however, Backflip ceased trading citing "economic woes at the start of the 21st century". In 2005, the founder of Blink said, "I don't think it was that we were 'too early' or that we got killed when the bubble burst... I believe it all came down to product design, and to some very slight differences in approach."

Founded in late 2003 by Joshua Schachter, del.icio.us (since acquired by Yahoo! in 2005) pioneered "tagging" and coined the term "Social bookmarking". In 2004, as del.icio.us began to take off, Furl and Simpy were released, along with Citeulike and Connotea, and Stumbleupon. In 2006, Ma.gnolia, Blue Dot, and Diigo entered the bookmarking field, and in 2007 IBM Lotus Connections included a social bookmarking service aimed at businesses and enterprises.

Sites such as Digg, reddit, and Newsvine offer a similar system of organized "social news".


A social bookmarking system has several advantages over traditional bookmarking methods.
All tag-based classification of Internet resources (such as websites) are done by real people (That is to say; You and Me), who understand the content of the resource, as opposed to using the sites own software, which algorithmically attempts to interpret the correct meaning of a resource. Also, You and Me tend to find and bookmark some web pages (gems) that have not yet been noticed or indexed by web spiders. Additionally, some social bookmarking systems can rank a resource based on how many times it has been bookmarked by users, "back-links" which may be a more useful metric than systems that rank resources based on the number of external links pointing to it.

From the users point of view, social bookmarking is an effective and useful way to store and access a consolidated set of bookmarks from various computers, organize large groups of bookmarks, and share bookmarks with others etc. For the Search Engine Optimizer (SEO) however, it can be a very effective free tool if used properly and can even outperform traditional paid methods of driving targeted and qualified traffic.
Automatic submission tool: "Bookmarkingdemon"


Social bookmarking can also be susceptible to corruption and collusion. Unfortunately due to the popularity of social bookmarking, some users are using it as a tool to increase a websites exposure along with their search engine optimization (SEO) efforts making their website more visible. The more often a web page is submitted and tagged, the better chance it has of being found. Spammers are spending a lot of time and effort manually bookmarking the same web page multiple times and/or tagging each page of their web site using a lot of popular tags. Some social bookmarking websites add CAPTCHA protection to fight spam, but unfortunately this can prevent blind users from registering for those services if accessibility CAPTCHA's are not provided.

If you are a "responsible" site owner intent on creating back-links for legitimate purposes then you can use software to "Automatically register and submit metatags" (keywords) to hundreds of Social bookmarking sites including CAPTCHA protected sites.

Automatic submission tool:
Automated "Spam free" Search Engine Optimization tool using Social bookmarks

Wednesday, 28 May 2008

Building for a successful Website

It's very frustrating to "SELL" something for "NOTHING" if they just don't understand it!

About 8 years ago I founded PROCARE Computers, a consultancy Company here in the United Kingdom.
At the time I was still actively volunteering some of my time to charitable organizations, and working for free in local hospitals with stroke & dementia patients.
I also had some moderate success as a design consultant through my company, offering web design & hosting services.
Combining my two interests; around that time I was able to offer Charitable organizations FREE web design & consultation.

Technology services for free!
Costs were to be recovered paid through shared commissions on a performance related basis for non profitable organizations. However despite the fact that FREE SERVICES were on offer; it was still frustratingly difficult to explain, persuade or motivate these organizations into having something done for free!

Simply by explaining "Technologies" to those who are not technically minded, can still frustrate your marketing efforts.

As part of the "pitch" to provide something for free... (Yes you still need to pitch), I included some information which I still think holds true today, and which someone such as a budding web designer for example (who hopefully will understand the simple tech speak) may employ in their own marketing efforts.

The information and services below are a few extracts and part of the original pitch - provided FREE to non charitable organizations. But as mentioned already; - it's very frustrating to "SELL something for NOTHING" if they just don't understand it!

Building for a successful Website
By: Chris Wilson
(Web Consultant & Proprietor)

Copyright © 2002 Chris Wilson

Imagine… after just a few weeks of contacting us, your once “ struggling ” local organization has suddenly gone global! Be prepared to play host to thousands of people from all over the world!
Internet Design & Managed Hosting

HAVE I GOT GOOD NEWS FOR YOU… Hi and a warm welcome to everyone! So you want a Website do you? It ’ s possible that we at PROCARE COMPUTERS could provide any charitable organization with free Web pages. This would make us feel very proud because we would be contributing something you and your service users need, and that can only be a good thing. I have put together some basic information for you and your organization that should simplify the complexity of planning and creating a website. The analogy compares to producing a “ Successful ” Website to that of just producing some basic html documents which I hope you will agree; are pretty much useless on their own. I sincerely hope you find the information both informative, and easy to understand. If you have any difficulty with any of the jargon or you need more information, I will be more than happy to discuss.
Happy reading and good luck!

Chris Wilson
We at PROCARE COMPUTERS design professional Website ’ s for a “ Targeted ” and “ Qualified ” visitor with high click-through rates.
We achieve that by diligently optimizing your pages to get top search engine placement and ranking based on a solid research foundation. All this can easily be realized without it significantly affecting your existing budgets.


The costs involved for us to produce Web pages for your own Charity Website would be minimal; about £50 or so per page, which we can offset against tax.
However before we can start to produce even a single page, you need to plan it! The following list represents what we believe to be essential…
1. You need to research and define your target market or niche
2. You need to decide on the type of Website you will need
3. You need to decide the site ’ s overall theme
4. Content needs to be gathered and sorted such as photographs, logos, written text, video ’ s, and sound etc. as applicable –and lots of it
5. Content needs to be relevant and appropriate (not misleading to visitors or the robot engines)
6. You need to break all the information down into manageable parts; categories, pages, headlines, sub-headlines, paragraphs and sentences
7. Content needs to be altered, reduced in size and/or converted into electronic form for publishing on the internet
8. The design of the site needs to be determined (layout, colours, text sizes, fonts, links, online forms, promotions etc.) which should be consistent throughout
9. You need to design the sites structure making it easy for visitors to find the information they want (navigation)
10. You need to decide additional kinds of technology you may want; JavaScript, Java, XML, Perl, ASP, SQL, PHP, Flash etc.
11. Confidentiality & Copyright issues may need to be addressed
12. Your site needs an online privacy statement
13. You need your own Domain name example: (www.yourname.co.uk)
14. You may need your own personalised matching Email address example: (you@yourname.co.uk)
15. You need to publish it on the Internet (uploading, file permissions etc.)
16. You need it hosting somewhere (a place for it to reside)
17. It needs to be registered with and rank highly on search engines and Online directories– free and “ Pay-Per-Click ” are some of the options available
18. It needs to be positioned well on the engines, otherwise you ’ re potentially losing 90% of your visitors (and revenue) if they cannot find you
19. It needs promoting
20. It needs to be checked, maintained, and updated regularly (managed)
21. Security flaws and loop holes need to be addressed proactively
22. It needs to be administered by you daily

If you want your site to succeed at all- then you need to implement all the above and more besides such as; META Tag creation, keyword density, doorway pages, Website Statistics, CGI Programs, Ezines, Newsletters etc.

The above few paragraphs are just extracts. If anyone wants the original pitch (9 pages in total) you can request it HERE

Tuesday, 27 May 2008

Eating the plastic – an alternative to landfill?

Let your plastic bags biodegrade with a little help from some small munchers!
I read an article the other day in which some 16 year old student from Canada has supposedly identified, cultured and isolated microorganisms that help break down the polymers used in producing polyethylene plastic bags.
It’s not a new discovery but as I understand it, one of the two microorganisms identified namely; Genus "Pseudomonas" is also capable of degrading polystyrene. Burd's research on polyethylene plastic bags however may be a first.
Daniel Burd's Science Fair project won him the top prize at the Canada-Wide Science Fair in Waterloo Ottawa – with a $10,000 prize, a $20,000 scholarship, and recognition that he has found a practical way to help the environment.
On the face of it; this does appear to be an environmentalists dream with estimates suggesting we produce 500 billion plastic bags each year worldwide, and with public demand for a greener environment, it just might be worth investigating a little further.
Essentially, Burd hypothesized that since the bags eventually do degrade, it must be possible to isolate and augment the degrading agents. Hats off to this 16 year old kid who through his own particular low-tech experiments at home - identified two types of agents responsible namely; Sphingomonas & Pseudomonas which he thinks work together in producing about 32% by weight degradation after about 6 weeks through a simple process. His theory is that one organism helps the other to reproduce.
Is it worth doing?
The obvious question to me begs; is it really worth pursuing any degradation which results in breaking down the polymers? Or more to the point; if we do find an economical method will this actually render the humble plastic bag inert and safer for the environment?
If by breaking down these polymers we are only going to succeed at “breaking” the polymer chain binding into more manageable mono, and arguably “safer” compounds; then that might not prove such a positive. Some might still argue that on a molecular scale the resulting break down of those polymers would still exist (if not entirely consumed by digestion) and can even last for over 1,000 years in landfill.
Not to mention the possibility of an abundant “Super-strain” mutant polymer eating organism - fed exclusively on polyethylene bags… rampantly eating its way through our still useful and serviceable plastics!
Good plot for a film anyone?
I personally think the estimate to be nearer 100 years for natural degradation (without biodegradable additives in the mix) given all the right conditions, with sunlight playing an important roll in that process (along with oxidation with ambient temperatures or coefficients), so I guess given the natural timescales involved then; landfill is clearly not the answer.
Plastics do “naturally” degrade given some arbitrary time frame. It just might prove that this “natural” time process does indeed involve bacteria combined – perhaps with other natural chemical processes… this seems to make sense. Different types of polymers however degrade by different natural processes over widely varying timescales, and are dependent upon the environmental catalyst employed to break down those chains.
I’m not passing the buck here but we surely must all agree; that too much plastic packaging exists at POS (Point of Sale) and is discarded as waste soon after purchase. Better to make it law for the suppliers and manufactures to accept back our packaging and force them to be accountable or invent their own solution for disposal?
Only then will we see any significant reduction in our dustbins.
  • Pseudomonas are naturally resistant to penicillin
  • All species and strains of Pseudomonas are Gram-negative bacteria
  • Pseudomonas thrive in harsh conditions - a result of their hardy cell-wall that contains porins
  • Pseudomonas have the ability to metabolize a variety of diverse nutrients.
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a highly relevant opportunistic pathogen.
  • Pseudomonas found abundantly in high altitudes help form rain and snow – a common nucleator of ice crystals
  • Effective iron Chelator
  • Some members of the genus Pseudomonas are able to metabolize chemical pollutants in the environment
  • Ability to grow at low temperatures and spoil refrigerated food
  • Ability to survive and multiply in a nuclear reactor - absorbed more than 10 million rep (roentgen equivalent physical) in an eight-hour day, which is 10,000 times the dose that is fatal to man.
  • Sphingomonas are strictly aerobic bacteria
  • Sphingomonas are Gram-negative bacteria
  • Sphingomonas are subdivided into four genera: Sphingomonas, Sphingobium, Novosphingobium and Sphingopyxis commonly referred to collectively as "Sphingomonads".
  • Sphingomonads play a role in human disease, primarily by causing a range of non-life-threatening infections - easily treated by antibiotic therapy
  • Sphingomonads are utilised for biotechnological applications such as bioremediation of environmental contaminants.