Monday, 9 November 2009

About Protons | What is a Proton?

Protons are particles that are held together with neutrons by nuclear forces in order to create an atomic nucleus. All atomic particles have a particular spin that affects their movement, among other things, and for protons this spin is -1/2.

Protons themselves are made up even smaller particles called quarks.
There are up and down quarks and the proton is composed of two ups and one down.
They are held to each other by tiny subatomic particles called gluons"

Atoms consist of Protons, Electrons and Neutrons.
Protons have a "POSITIVE" (+) charge and Electrons have a "NEGATIVE" (-) charge while Neutrons have a "NEUTRAL" charge.

Saturday, 7 November 2009

Dextrin - What is it used for?

Dextrin (C6H10O5)n
Dextrin can be bought, but it is very easy to make.
Cornflour when heated to the right temperature changes to dextrin - it's that simple.
My method is to put a 1/2" layer of cornflour in a metal baking tray and place it in a hot oven (200 degrees Centigrade) for about 2 hours. Stir it around every 1/2 hour or so to ensure it's all cooked.
After 2 hours, it should have changed from white to light yellow. If it goes brown or black, the oven is too hot!
A little experimentation may be required until you have got a good idea of the temperature of your oven - they do vary.
In theory if you add a little of your product to some water with a crystal of iodine in it, it should not turn blue. This is a test for starch, and all the starch should have been converted to dextrin.
In practice I have never bothered with this and the dextrin has done it's job perfectly.
Yellow dextrins are used as water-soluble glues in remoistable envelope adhesives and paper tubes, in the mining industry as additives in froth flotation, in the foundry industry as green strength additives in sand casting, and as binders in gouache paint.
White dextrins are used as:
* as crispness enhancer for food processing, in food batters, coatings and glazes,
* as textile finishing agent to increase weight and stiffness of textile fabrics,
* as thickening and binding agent in pharmaceuticals and paper coating formulations.
As pyrotechnic binder and fuel, they are added to fireworks and sparklers, allowing them to solidify as pellets or "stars."
Due to the rebranching, dextrins are less digestible; indigestible dextrin are developed as soluble fiber supplements for food products.
Dextrin added to water forms a sticky gum used as a food thickener.
White and yellow dextrins from starch roasted with little or no acid is called British gum.

Wednesday, 4 November 2009

Hydrogen production using Radiowaves

Decomposition of water by radiowaves

Using radiofrequency radiation it is possible to produce hydrogen from water-salt solutions (NaCl-H20) and seawater by chemical decomposition.

When exposed to a polarized radiofrequency beam at 13.56 MHz at room temperature, NaCl–H2O solutions of concentrations ranging from 1 to 30% generate an intimate mixture of hydrogen and oxygen.

Radiofrequency radiation makes sodium ions in saltwater-solution vibrate, and due to van der Waals force the oxygen atoms of water molecules will also vibrate, resulting in separation of hydrogen and oxygen atoms.

Whether this novel method is economically competitive is yet to be resolved. This method of separating hydrogen and oxygen from water was discovered in 2007 by John Kanzius experimenting with water desalinization, and it was first confirmed by Penn State research group lead by Professor Rustum Roy.

Sunday, 1 November 2009

The CURE for Athletes foot

Athlete's foot, caused by the fungus Tinea pedis, is the reddish, cracked, flaky skin seen usually between the toes. It thrives in warm, moist places and is contagious. It can be contracted through contact with infected skin particles at home in the bathroom or in public places like locker rooms, showers or around public swimming pools.

It is a common, persistent infection of the foot caused by a dermatophyte - a microscopic fungus that lives on dead tissue of the hair, toenails and outer skin layers. These fungi thrive in warm, moist environments such as shoes, stockings, and the floors of public showers, locker rooms, and swimming pools. Athlete's foot is transmitted through contact with a cut or abrasion on the bottom surface of the foot. In rare cases, the fungus is transmitted from infected animals to humans. There are at least four dermatophytes that can cause tineas pedis. The most common is Trichophyton rubrum.

There are four common forms of athlete's foot.
The most common is an annoying, persistent itching of the skin on the sole of the foot or between the toes (often the fourth and fifth toes). As the infection progresses, the skin grows soft. The centre of the infection is inflamed and sensitive to the touch. Gradually, the edges of the infected area become milky white and the skin begins to peel. There may also be a slight watery discharge.

In the ulcerative type, the peeling skin becomes worse. Large cracks develop in the skin, making the patient susceptible to secondary bacterial infections. The infection can be transmitted to other parts of the body by scratching, or contamination of clothing or bedding.

The third type of tinea infection is often called "moccasin foot." In this type, a red rash spreads across the lower portion of the foot in the pattern of a moccasin. The skin in this region gradually becomes dense, white, and scaly.

The fourth form of tinea pedis is inflammatory or vesicular, in which a series of raised bumps or ridges develops under the skin on the bottom of the foot, typically in the region of the metatarsal heads. Itching is intense and there is less peeling of the skin.

People with acute tinea infections may develop similar outbreaks on their hands, typically on the palms. This trichophyde reaction, also known as tineas manuum, is an immune system response to fungal antigens (antibodies that fight the fungal infection).

Fungal infections are controlled by the skins PH levels.
Fungal infections thrive in warm, slightly acidic and moist environments.
Athletes foot is slightly acidic in nature and cannot survive well in Alkali or a base solution. Therefore the effective treatment should be to change the PH levels of the affected areas of skin with the application of an Alkaline based solution such as a foot soak, consisting of a weak solution of 5 litres of warm water with half cup of Sodium hypochlorite (Bleach) or 5 litres of warm water mixed with 1 heaped teaspoon of Potassium hydroxide (KOH). Both feet should be soaked in the solution for 15 minutes daily for up to 7 days to eradicate the fungal growth and prevent spreading to other areas.

Fungal nail growth
This treatment also cures fungal nail growth as it penetrates deep into the areas where traditional medication ointments treat only the surface layers of skin.

It is recommended that the dilute solutions do not exceed the strengths as suggested above, as it will readily burn and damage sensitive skin.
As with all treatments, you should seek independent advice from a physician. Always consult your Doctor if you take medications or suffer from any other ailments as treatment may interfere with your current treatments and/or cause additional problems.

Your skin will feel slimy to the touch after treatment with Alkaline based solutions which will aid greatly in your pedicure treatment and exfoliation.